High School and Employment Markets - Working with Objects
The last entry will discuss curriculum areas where interpersonal communication is most important: Foreign Languages, English Language Arts, and Fine Arts. This second will be working with things and ideas are most important: Science, Technical, and Math.
NATURAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM
In 1892 the Committee of Ten proposed physics, astronomy, chemistry and natural sciences for the first high school curriculum. This section will evaluate careers in Basic Scientific Research which include the physical and life sciences. It will not include careers that apply science like engineering or medical practice.
Skills and Knowledge: About 14.8 million or 11% of the 135 million jobs in the Occupational Outlook Handbook mention the value of knowing some science. That means 89% of jobs in the United States does not require any knowledge of science. About 6% of jobs that only require a high school degree mention knowing some science while higher numbers are required for jobs requiring a college degree. About 33% of all jobs requiring an advanced degree mention some knowledge of science. Some jobs require knowing multiple sciences. Some knowledge of Anatomy or Biology is included in the description of 10 million or 7.4% of all jobs. Chemistry is included in 4.5 million or 3.4% of jobs and Physics in 8.2 million or 6.0% of jobs. The jobs requiring science are expected to grow by 6.7% over the next ten years while overall jobs are expected to grow by 4.7%.
Jobs where Science is the major skill – 916,900 or .7% of all American Jobs. There are about 23 basic science occupations discussed in the Occupational Outlook Handbook. These jobs should grow by 5.6% over the next ten years which is slightly higher than average. All require at least an Associate’s Degree while about 26% require a graduate degree. Positions that require an Associate degree earn an average of $49,510; those with a Bachelor’s Degree earn $79,630; and Graduate Degree pay $91,964. Both the Bachelor’s and Graduate Degree are above the average of $53,000.
College Graduates with Degrees in the Sciences. The Employment Outlook Handbook separates College Graduates into Biology and Physical Sciences. Employed college graduates with Biology majors earn an average $65,000 and those in Physical Sciences $70,000. These are 10% to 20% above the average college graduate. About 69% of Biology graduates and 66% of graduates in the Physical Sciences are employed in jobs that required a college degree. This is higher than the average of 58%. About 59% of Biology Majors and 54% of graduates in the Physical Sciences felt the need to get a graduate degree. These are much higher than the average of 37%. The most common occupation for both these graduates is Physicians.
In 1918 standards proposed “vocation” and “command of functions” for high school students. According to a 2008 Department of Education study about 46% of public and 29% of private high schools offer vocational education. The most common programs are in Business and Technology. Other programs include Agriculture, Marketing, Communications Technology, Other Technology, Construction, Mechanics and Repairs, Transportation, Precision Production, Health Care, Child Care and Education, Protective Services, Food Service and Hospitality, and Personal and Other Services.
The version of vocational education that was formed after 1918 is not as relevant today. Technology today is more integrated with science and math than in 1918. All three areas are included for that reason.
We will use “technology” to include all jobs where working with objects and equipment is the largest aspect of a position. Technology is growing in importance. Since 1950, the average American has three times the amount of technology at his or her disposal. Today about 68 million American jobs or 51% require more work with technology than with institutions or interpersonal skills.
Skills and Knowledge: The Occupational Outlook Handbook mentions knowledge of computers and mechanical skills. About 5.0 million or 3.7% of the 135 million jobs in the Occupational Outlook Handbook mention the value of knowing some computer skills. That means 96% of jobs in the United States do not require any computer skills. About 13.9 million or 10% of the jobs list “Mechanical Skills”. This is skewed toward jobs that require high school education only. About 15% of high school jobs and about 10% of Associate degree jobs are connected with acquiring mechanical skills.
Jobs where Use of Technology is the major skill – 51% of American Jobs.
I separate these into three areas: computers, health care, and other technology. All have evolved since 1918. About 4.5 million people or 3.5% of the workforce works primarily with computers. This will grow by 1% over the next ten years. About 17.2 million people or 12.7% of the workforce works primarily with health care. This will grow by 15.8% over the next ten years. About 27.3 million people or 35% of the workforce is in other areas of technology. About 93% of jobs in other areas of technology do not require a college education.
The categories for this group are contain the following occupations.
Comp High School – Includes Computer Support Specialists
Comp Bach – 8 occupations including programmers, systems analysts, and database administrators
Comp Grad – Includes computer and information research scientists
H Care High School – 7 occupations including home health aides, veterinary assistants, medical assistants, and fitness trainers
H Care High School and License – 14 occupations including EMTs, dental assistants, massage therapists, opticians, and pharmacy technicians
H Care Associates – 6 occupations including dental hygienists, radiation therapists, and veterinary technicians
H Care Bach – 7 occupations including registered nurses, athletic trainers, and dieticians
H Care Grad – 16 occupations including physicians, dentists, veterinarians, pharmacists, and physical therapists
Tech High School – 33 occupations – including janitors, food prep workers, agricultural workers, waiters, and hand laborers
Tech High School and License – 24 occupations including barbers, hazardous materials removers, airline pilots, passenger vehicle drivers, and gambling services workers
Tech 2 years Training – 18 occupations Including electricians, plumbers, chefs, power plant operators, and construction equipment operators
Tech Associates – 11 occupations Including drafters, air traffic controllers, funeral service workers, and technicians
Tech – Bach - 23 occupations Including engineers, architects, surveyors, and construction managers
College Graduates with Degrees in Technology. Employed college graduates with degrees in technology subjects typically earn more than average college graduates and are more likely to attain college level jobs. Except for graduates in health care subjects, they are more likely to acquire graduate degrees.
In 1892 the Committee of Ten proposed Math for the first high school curriculum.
Skills and Knowledge: About 41.8 million or 31% of the 135 million jobs in the Occupational Outlook Handbook mention the value of knowing some math. That means 69% of jobs in the United States do not require any math skills. Over 30% of jobs that only require a high school degree mention having math skills. This percentage is similar for college graduates.
Some jobs require knowing multiple forms of math. Skills in Geometry or Trigonometry is included in the description of 2.6 million or 2.1% of all jobs and pay an average of $68,000 or 34% above average. These include graduates of high school and college. Skills with Statistics is required of 2.8 million or 2.1% of all jobs and pay an average of $75,000 or 47% above average. This includes jobs that require a college but not high school degree. Skills listing Calculus or "Advance Math" is included in 2.1 million or 1.6% of all jobs and pay an average of $100,625 or 98% above average. The jobs requiring math skills are expected to grow by 2.2% over the next ten years while overall jobs are expected to grow by 4.7%. Jobs that require a Bachelor’s degree and math skills are expected to grow by over 8%
Jobs where Math is the major skill. - About 178,500 or .1% of people work in 3 occupations in math. These include Actuaries, Mathematicians, Statisticians, and Operations Research Analysts. These jobs should grow by 26% over the next ten years which is much higher than average of 4.7%. All require at least a Bachelor’s Degree while about 26% require a graduate degree. Positions that require a Bachelor’s Degree earn $91,379; and Graduate Degree pay $93,290. Both groups are more than 72% higher than the average pay of $53,000.
College Graduates with Degrees in Math. Employed college graduates with Math majors earn an average $70,000. That is about 20% above the average college graduate. About 70% of Math graduates are employed in jobs that require a college degree. This is higher than the average of 58%. About 49% of Math Majors chose to get a graduate degree. These are much higher than the average of 37%. The most common occupation these graduates is Health Specialties.